The creation of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 allowed most Loyalists to live under British laws and institutions, while the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion. The first to write the history of Quebec, since its discovery, was the historian François-Xavier Garneau.  In addition, the Government of Quebec owns airports and heliports to increase the accessibility of local services to communities in the Basse-Côte-Nord and northern regions. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachiansare the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, whilâ¦ The flag in its present form with its 4 white "fleur-de-lis" lilies on a blue background with a white cross replaced the Union Jack on Quebec's Parliament Building on January 21, 1948. Quebec is divided into four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, humid continental and East maritime. Quebec officially disputes this boundary. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. In particular, the largest Mohawk Iroquois reserves (Kahnawake, Akwesasne and Kanesatake) were not counted. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. At the time of first European contact and later colonization, Algonquian, Iroquois and Inuit nations controlled what is now Quebec.  In contrast, in the rest of Canada, in 2006 only about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of both of the country's official languages. In 1977, the Quebec Parliament declared June 24 to be Quebec's National Holiday. At Quebec City, the length of the daily sunshine varies from 8:37 hrs in December to 15:50 hrs in June; the annual variation is much greater (from 4:54 to 19:29 hrs) at the northern tip of the province.  To encourage population growth and to redress the severe imbalance between single men and women, King Louis XIV sponsored the passage of approximately 800 young French women (known as les filles du roi) to the colony. , After 1627, King Louis XIII of France allowed the Company of New France to introduced the seigneurial system and forbade settlement in New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics.. Development and security of land transportation in Canada are provided by the ministère des Transports du Québec. Currently, the song Gens du pays is by far preferred by many Quebecers to be the national anthem of Quebec. It is anchored by the provincial capital, Quebec City, and is largely coextensive with that city's metropolitan area. It reported a total resident population of 729,997 as of the Canada 2016 Census, with Quebec City having 73.7 percent of the total. Its capital is Quebec City, which is located in the southeastern portion of the province, along the St. Lawrence River. This industry generated 487,000 jobs in agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco and food distribution.. The rural part of the landscape is divided into narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date back to settlement patterns in 17th century New France. It's definitely worth the visit for the architecture and the history associated with this place. "Place Names". In 2003, the value of mineral exploitation reached Quebec 3.7 billion Canadian dollars. , About 180 000 Quebeckers work in different field of information technology.  After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) and Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from the Ohio Valley.  The Inuit continue to fish and hunt whale and seal in the harsh Arctic climate along the coasts of Hudson and Ungava Bay. . There is a significant undercount, as many of the largest Indian bands regularly refuse to participate in Canadian censuses for political reasons regarding the question of aboriginal sovereignty.  On November 27, 2006, the House of Commons passed a symbolic motion moved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. The largest inland body of water is the Caniapiscau Reservoir, created in the realization of the James Bay Project to produce hydroelectric power.  The combination of rich and easily arable soils and Quebec's relatively warm climate makes this valley the most prolific agricultural area of Quebec province. The podorythmie is a characteristic of traditional Quebec music and means giving the rhythm with the feet.  Presented outdoors under a tent or in venues similar to the Montreal Casino, the circuses attract large crowds both in Quebec and abroad. The Oka hills also rise from the plain. , On October 30, 2003, the National Assembly of Quebec voted unanimously to affirm "that the people of Québec form a nation".  To restore stability to his largest remaining North American colony, King George III sent Carleton back to Quebec to remedy the situation. It is an official part of the coat of arms and has been the official licence plate motto since 1978, replacing "La belle province" (the beautiful province). The Labrador Peninsula is covered by the Laurentian Plateau (or Canadian Shield), dotted with mountains such as Otish Mountains.  One specific area in the Bilingual Belt called the West Island of Montreal, represented by the federal electoral district of Lac-Saint-Louis, is the most bilingual area in the province: 72.8% of its residents claim to know English and French according to the most recent census.  Among these troops are contemporary, travelling and on-horseback circuses, such as Les 7 Doigts de la Main, Cirque Éloize, Cavalia, Kosmogonia, Saka and Cirque Akya. This author will be part of the current of patriotic literature (also known as the "poets of the country" and literary identity) that will arise after the Patriots Rebellion of 1837–1838. Being a modern cosmopolitan society, today, all types of music can be found in Quebec. , Religion in Quebec (2011 National Household Survey):, Quebec is unique among the provinces in its overwhelmingly Roman Catholic population, though recently with a low church attendance. The all time record high was 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) and the all time record low was −51.0 °C (−59.8 °F). Although reaction to conscription was favourable in English Canada the idea was deeply unpopular in Quebec.  Approximately 1.1 million Quebecers work in the field of science and technology. The French language subsequently regained legal status in the Legislature. In the waters of the St. Lawrence there are eight deep-water ports for the transhipment of goods. In that year, the Legislative Council was abolished and the Legislative Assembly was renamed the National Assembly. This marine environment sustains fisheries and smaller ports in the Lower Saint Lawrence (Bas-Saint-Laurent), Lower North Shore (Côte-Nord), and Gaspé (Gaspésie) regions of the province. Sports in Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec culture. Some livestock have the title of "Québec heritage breed", namely the Canadian horse, the Chantecler chicken and the Canadian cow. By 1756, France and Britain were battling the Seven Years' War worldwide.  Although some help was given to the Americans by the locals, Governor Carleton punished American sympathizers, and public support of the American cause came to an end. This led to the formation of the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois party in Ottawa under the leadership of Lucien Bouchard, who had resigned from the federal cabinet.  Moreover, as a major centre of exploration for diamonds, Quebec has seen, since 2002, an increase in its mineral explorations, particularly in the Northwest as well as in the Otish Mountains and the Torngat Mountains. In addition, Quebec has almost 12,000 bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, culverts and other structures such as the Quebec Bridge, the Laviolette Bridge and the Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge–Tunnel. The debate over the status of Quebec is a highly animated one to this day. By 2012, the population of Quebec reached 8 million, and it is projected to reach 9.2 million in 2056. This is a lower percentage than that of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba but higher than that of the other five provinces. Les Rendez-vous du cinéma québécois is a festival surrounding the ceremony of the Jutra Awards Night that rewards work and personalities of Quebec cinema. , In 2011, 599,230 people (7.7 percent of the population) people in Quebec declared English to be their mother tongue, and 767,415 (9.8 percent) used it most often as their home language The English-speaking community or Anglophones are entitled to services in English in the areas of justice, health, and education; services in English are offered in municipalities in which more than half the residents have English as their mother tongue.  Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. The Canadian Shield also has a complex hydrological network of perhaps a million lakes, bogs, streams and rivers. The conservative government of Maurice Duplessis and his Union Nationale dominated Quebec politics from 1944 to 1959 with the support of the Catholic Church.  Until 1969, Quebec was the only officially bilingual province in Canada and most public institutions functioned in both languages. Samuel de Champlain was part of a 1603 expedition from France that travelled into the St. Lawrence River. , Inland waters are populated by small to large fresh water fish, such as the largemouth bass, the American pickerel, the walleye, the Acipenser oxyrinchus, the muskellunge, the Atlantic cod, the Arctic char, the brook trout, the Microgadus tomcod (tomcod), the Atlantic salmon, the rainbow trout, etc.. By 1758 at the Battle of Carillon, the Flag of Carillon would become the basis of Quebec's desire to have its own flag. It has about 30 mines, 158 exploration companies and fifteen primary processing industries. Approximately 12 900 people working in over 110 companies such as IBM, CMC, and Matrox. The government promises to provide about 3% of Quebec's GDP in research and development (R&D). Quebec is the only Canadian province whose population is mainly Francophone; 6,102,210 people (78.1 percent of the population) recorded it as their sole native language in the 2011 Census, and 6,249,085 (80.0%) recorded that they spoke it most often at home.  The Artis and the Gemini Awards gala recognize the personalities of television and radio industry in Quebec and French Canada. CPE News (6/29/2020) â TPG, Fosun, and Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ) (consortium), the joint owner of Cirque du Soleil Entertainment Group, in partnership with Investissement Québec (IQ), have submitted a proposal to acquire substantially all of Cirque du Soleil Entertainment Groupâs assets.. Quebec City is the capital of the province Quebec. Most of Quebec's population lives in this area of vegetation, almost entirely along the banks of the St. Lawrence. In 1848, Baldwin and LaFontaine, allies and leaders of the Reformist party, were asked by Lord Elgin to form an administration together under the new policy of responsible government. , Quebec is considered as one of world leaders in fundamental scientific research, having produced ten Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry, or medicine.  It also stands for the exploitation of its forest resources. The swelling numbers of English encouraged them to make greater demands for recognition with the colonial government. Popular French-language contemporary writers include Louis Caron, Suzanne Jacob, Yves Beauchemin, and Gilles Archambault. In 1837, residents of Lower Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end to the unilateral control of the British governors.  William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill University in Montreal. Old Québec, a UNESCO World Heritage treasure, is walkable and safe. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq (Levasseur, 1601) and Kébec (Lescarbot, 1609).  In June 2017 S&P rated Quebec as an AA- credit risk, surpassing Ontario for the first time. Quebec has also contributed to the creation of some Canadian artificial satellites including SCISAT-1, ISIS, Radarsat-1 and Radarsat-2. Biodiversity of the estuary and gulf of Saint Lawrence River consists of an aquatic mammal wildlife, of which most goes upriver through the estuary and the Saguenay–St. (Newfoundland premier Clyde Wells had expressed his opposition to the accord, but, with the failure in Manitoba, the vote for or against Meech never took place in his province.) With its cinematic installations, such as the Cité du cinéma and Mel's studios, the city of Montreal is home to the filming of various productions.  The energy balance of Quebec has undergone a large shift over the past 30 years.  It is therefore considered as the most sensitive camera in the world. Beginning in 1963, a paramilitary group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade-long programme of propaganda and terrorism that included bombings, robberies and attacks directed primarily at English institutions, resulting in at least five deaths. The National Circus School and the École de cirque de Québec were created to train future Contemporary circus artists. The Quiet Revolution was a period of dramatic social and political change that saw the decline of Anglo supremacy in the Quebec economy, the decline of the Roman Catholic Church's influence, the formation of hydroelectric companies under Hydro-Québec and the emergence of a pro-sovereignty movement under former Liberal minister René Lévesque. The Commission des transports du Québec works with the freight carriers and the public transport. Vol.  The Quartier Latin (English: Latin Quarter) of Montreal, and Vieux-Québec (English: Old Quebec) in Quebec City, are two hubs of activity for today's artists.  Avian fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle, the peregrine falcon, the snowy owl and the bald eagle. Capitale-Nationale (French pronunciation: [kapital nɑsjɔnal]; English: National Capital region) is one of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec. During World War II, the participation of Quebec was more important but led to the Conscription Crisis of 1944 and opposition. , The Canadian Space Agency was established in Quebec due to its major role in this research field. The tours are geared to Québec student groups and â¦ It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka began to produce the famous Oka cheese. The réseau routier québécois (Quebec road network) is managed by the Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec (SAAQ) (Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation) and consists of about 185,000 kilometres (115,000 mi) of highways and national, regional, local, collector and forest roads. The Cultural Heritage Fund is a program of the Quebec government for the conservation and development of Quebec's heritage, together with various laws.  In 1608, he returned as head of an exploration party and founded Quebec City with the intention of making the area part of the French colonial empire. The Saint Lawrence River has some of the world's largest sustaining inland Atlantic ports at Montreal (the province's largest city), Trois-Rivières, and Quebec City (the capital). Quebec nationalism has been one expression of this perspective. The Société de développement des entreprises culturelles (SODEC) works to promote and fund individuals working in the cultural industry. The northern regions of Quebec have an arctic climate (Köppen ET), with very cold winters and short, much cooler summers. Quebec has subdivisions at the regional, supralocal and local levels. What worked for Carleton in 1774 was not likely to succeed in 1784. New France became a Royal Province in 1663 under King Louis XIV of France with a Sovereign Council that included intendant Jean Talon. The Cinémathèque québécoise has a mandate to promote the film and television heritage of Quebec. , As a result of those deliberations, in 1867 the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Acts, providing for the Confederation of most of these provinces. Primary industries sustain small cities in regions of Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, and Côte-Nord. Nearly 9% of the population of Quebec belongs to a visible minority group. In their published Manifesto, the militants stated: "In the coming year Bourassa will have to face reality; 100,000 revolutionary workers, armed and organized." , Quebec is the fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world after China, Brazil and the United States and relies almost exclusively (96% in 2008) on this source of renewable energy for its electricity needs.. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. used to in the American colonies. ", "Government of Canada Helps Boost Biofuel Industry", "Gros plan sur l'énergie: Production d'électricité", "Le premier ministre énonce sa vision et crée une commission spéciale d'étude", "Folk Song and Music in Quebec: a Brief Introduction, by Stephen D. Winick, Ph.D.: Expanded Liner Notes (Le temps des Fetes, Washington Revels, revelsdc.org/canadiancd)", "Notre raison d'être, c'est la musique de votre quotidien", "L'Association des producteurs de films et de télévision du Québec", "L'Association des radiodiffuseurs communautaires du Québec, historique", "Agreement on the usage of Churches in Quebec", "About the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada – Duties", "Who won team canada's 29 medals in Pyeongchang", Justice Québec – Drapeauet et symboles nationaux, "Amiral [Toile des insectes du Québec — Insectarium ]", CBC Digital Archives – Quebec Elections: 1960–1998, Montreal Metropolitan Community (Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal), Former colonies and territories in Canada, Proposed provinces and territories of Canada, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quebec&oldid=992781194, States and territories established in 1867, French-speaking countries and territories, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from June 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2012, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Since 1987 the avian emblem of Quebec has been the. Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and political perspective) part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of which is very sparsely populated. , The mining industry accounted for 6.3% of Quebec's GDP.  The main climatic influences are from western and northern Canada and move eastward, and from the southern and central United States that move northward. Prior attempts to amend the Canadian constitution to acknowledge Quebec as a "distinct society" – referring to the province's uniqueness within Canada regarding law, language, and culture – have been unsuccessful; however, the federal government under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien would later endorse recognition of Quebec as a distinct society. The Canadian Style states that Montréal and Québec (the city) must retain their accents in English federal documents. Quebec is at the centre of French-speaking culture in North America. Site Internet informatif spécialisé dans la musique métal. The Quebec Act offended a variety of interest groups in the British colonies. The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, The New York Public Library. While many works decorate the public areas of Quebec, others are displayed in foreign countries such as the sculpture Embâcle (Jam) by Charles Daudelin on Québec Place in Paris and the statue Québec Libre! This sport, which was played for the first time on March 3, 1875, at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal and promoted over the years by numerous achievements, including the centenary of the Montreal Canadiens, still raises passions. Afable, Patricia O. and Madison S. Beeler (1996). McRoberts, Kenneth, and Dale Posgate (1984). Land speculators and settlers objected to the transfer of western lands previously claimed by the colonies to a non-representative government.  The British Royal Proclamation of 1763 renamed Canada (part of New France) as the Province of Quebec. In 1629 there was the surrender of Quebec, without battle, to English privateers led by David Kirke during the Anglo-French War. Most visible minorities in Quebec live in or near Montreal. Basically, this approach was designed with the intent of keeping French and English as far apart as possible. The tundra covers more than 24% of the area of Quebec. This time, it was rejected by a slim majority (50.6 percent NO to 49.4 percent YES). TPG bought a majority stake in 2015. In 1778, Frederick Haldimand took over for Guy Carleton as governor of Quebec.  They established fur trading forts on the Great Lakes (Étienne Brûlé 1615), Hudson Bay (Radisson and Groseilliers 1659–60), Ohio River and Mississippi River (La Salle 1682), as well as the Saskatchewan River and Missouri River (de la Verendrye 1734–1738).  The spending on research and development reached some 7.824 billion dollars in 2007, roughly the equivalent of 2.63% of Quebec's GDP. Its largest city, Montreal, is about 64 kilometers (40 miles) north of the U.S. border. Quebec's highest point at 1,652 metres is Mont d'Iberville, known in English as Mount Caubvick, located on the border with Newfoundland and Labrador in the northeastern part of the province, in the Torngat Mountains. , At 1.69 children per woman, Quebec's 2011 fertility rate is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.61, and is higher than it was at the turn of the 21st century.  It employs about 50,000 people in 158 companies. Its access to the Atlantic Ocean and the interior of North America made it the base of early French exploration and settlement in the 17th and 18th centuries.  The credit rating of Quebec is currently Aa2 according to the Moody's agency. , The province is one of the world leaders in the field of space science and contributed to important discoveries in this field.  The Treaty of Paris (1783) ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States.
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